For patients or health care consumers, the most important role of health sciences librarians is to facilitate access to contextualized and reliable consumer health information resources through various consumer health informatics tools. Examples of those tools include health promotion and educational materials embedded in personal health records or patient portals [ 38 , 39 ]. Therefore, health sciences librarians need to serve on health informatics committees and teams to make this information accessible and intelligible to educate and assist users who are unfamiliar with the software through training and instruction [ 40 — 42 ].
Health sciences librarians are also called on to support the evolving needs of health informatics research, including providing information-based services for biomedical informatics and promoting cross-field collaboration in areas of knowledge management, training, and sharing of both technological and informational resources [ 43 , 44 ]. HIP instruction constitutes another significant participatory role in different educational settings, such as user training for clinical informatics implementation and classroom teaching about health or medical informatics [ 6 , 45 ].
Core duties: electronic resources, archives, collection development or management, technical services, programming, facility management and planning, outreach, publicity, negotiation. An observed decrease in library staffing in recent years combined with significant increases in the roles those staff are expected to play—which include providing commercial online services in addition to collection access and database or information resource training—means that librarians must be versatile and prepared for significant variation in day-to-day tasks [ 46 ].
Beyond their user-centered duties, HIPs often must assume managerial roles in their institutions. HIPs may be asked to contribute to facility planning and policy as well as to assess technological needs, signage, and architectural design [ 48 ].
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This expectation has led to HIP involvement in various contexts: assuming additional roles on emergency management teams, designing emergency management plans, and serving as a point person with connections to all other departments [ 17 , 50 — 52 ]. Indeed, since librarians often serve as organizers and collaborators in multiple departments in hospitals, it follows logically that they would be primary contacts in the event of a disaster [ 52 ]. The role of a disaster management librarian includes providing outreach, preparedness plans, information guidelines, and service to committees and other first responders [ 50 ].
Respondents to Dunikowski et al. Core duties: point-of-need information, instruction, continuing education, rounds or morning report institutional review, public health, cultural competency, equity and inclusion, information ethics. Increasingly, user-centered health information provision and services focusing on the unmet needs of researchers, educators, and health care providers through HIP outreach endeavors as liaisons or partners exist in all fields of biomedical research, health-related education, and clinical practice.
For instance, when it comes to understanding the quality and assessment of information that patients need in clinical settings, clinicians who lack the necessary research skills and expertise may rely on librarians to assist in disseminating information and guiding individuals in locating and understanding various resources either within or outside of the organization [ 54 ]. To best provide professional health information and act as effective liaisons, librarians must remain apprised of evidence-based subject knowledge, current medical trends, and health care policy, which can include outreach and partnerships to meet the needs of underserved, marginalized, or other groups with specialized needs [ 55 — 59 ].
A survey by Mi and Zhang, for example, indicated that As part of the clinical care team, librarians still fulfill traditional librarian duties including literature reviews but largely concentrate their efforts on supporting the demands of health professionals in a liaison capacity [ 60 — 62 ].
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With the broad range of information requests that they receive and limited resources that are available to both staff and users, librarians who do not have adequate training can feel anxiety, so preparation in MLS and MLIS curricula and beyond is crucial [ 61 ]. These librarians can bring this inclusive, equitable mindset to important roles on institutional review boards, applying their research skills, commitment to professional ethical conduct, and neutral stance to minimize participant risk and decrease conflicts of interest in approval processes for career-shaping studies [ 64 ].
Core duties: EBM practice, biomedical expertise, expert searching, reference, scholarly communications, writing skills, systematic review, citation management, copyright and intellectual property. This shift toward EBM has led to the development of new information service models, and the assistance that librarians provide can include information retrieval, literature review, and instruction as well as data collection and citation management [ 67 ].
Profession for the Future
A component of evidence-based librarianship, case studies have been published with increasing frequency in recent years in the Journal of the Medical Library Association and are popular among readers [ 68 ]. A systematic review librarian can assess and evaluate research in an organized way to meet specific criteria [ 18 ]. While this role is not new for librarians, it has become more prominent and more collaborative, as many librarians are called to serve on research teams and systematic review groups [ 69 , 70 ].
Exceeding the role of an expert searcher, research and systematic review librarians often serve as liaisons to systematic research teams and assist local staff and physicians with specialized research and projects [ 65 ]. HIPs may be called upon in this capacity because, in addition to their dedication to providing information needed for informed decision making, they possess experience and skills in highly specific areas that other staff often lack.
This role requires a great deal of collaboration as well as the ability to design and execute robust search processes. Systematic reviewers must be able to explore a variety of resources to find the most credible and relevant research in fields that demand a level of subject area knowledge that is deeper and further reaching than that typically encountered by other academic librarians [ 70 , 71 ].
In such roles, they endeavor to bridge the gap between information and those who need it, and doing so requires a significant amount of training and experience. Librarians also assist with miscellaneous other research-related roles, contributing to grant writing and data analysis as well as scholarly communications and translational research or the application of biomedical research to health care practice [ 17 , 18 , 72 ].maisonducalvet.com/sitios-para-conocer-gente-de-quart.php
Profession for the Future
These key supporting roles fortify organizational efforts to secure funding and purvey academic and biomedical research to the external world. Dedicated writing time, such as the writing retreat organized by the South Central Chapter of the Medical Library Association, can have a positive impact on health sciences librarians who are pursuing research or other writing-related activities [ 73 ].
Core duties: reference; expert searching; knowledge brokerage; information literacy; health care policy support; policy development; cultural competency; political climate; outreach; lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans, queer LGBTQ competency. Because consumer health librarians can not only locate a variety of information resources, but also deliver them in a user-oriented way, they can serve the information needs of patients, their families, and the general public [ 74 ].
They also provide patient support in the form of outreach and advocacy, which require nuanced understandings of the sociopolitical and cultural climates outside of their individual institutions. For example, two solo New England librarians reported serving as both expert searchers and knowledge brokers for patient information needs related to Medicaid policy [ 75 ].
Librarians in similar positions contributed to outreach programs for Spanish-speaking populations and facilitated access to grey literature. Librarians in such roles can collaborate closely with health care providers to clarify language and minimize patient confusion. In public libraries, too, librarians can work to uncover specialized health information and help users to find credible information on the Internet, though they must remain within the boundaries of their job, that is, providing information but not medical advice [ 61 ].
Their role entails assisting families, patients, and the general public to locate credible health information to enable these individuals to use the information to discuss issues with medical professionals or seek out treatment [ 54 ]. HIPs in this type of position can also contribute to collection development to provide the best health information resources possible for each user and to serve as expert searchers [ 65 , 77 ]. More recently, researchers discussing the growing need for culturally competent HIP librarianship cite the growing need for health information materials and services to support LGBTQ patrons or patients and their particular information needs, which necessitate that HIPs develop and practice cultural competency with regard to these communities [ 57 — 59 ].
Core duties: metadata, electronic resources, technical support, website planning and management, online publishing. With the growing web-based library resources available for research and publishing, librarians are able to manage and promote those digital collections with a complex skill set that encompasses organization and presentation of online information. Although literature on the topic is scarce, many HIPs are called upon to perform duties related to scholarly communications [ 78 ].
For optimal user access, they often empower users to locate, critically evaluate, and use updated evidence-based resources effectively and efficiently through sophisticated web-based information services and scholarly communications. For instance, following up on surveys from , , and , Dunikowski et al. New responsibilities in included metadata provision and web content archiving. In this and other emerging roles, librarians provided technical support, serving as website administrators, monitoring discussions, and even participating when appropriate.
Core duties: EMR compatibility and interoperability, archive management, data management, copyright and intellectual property, web content management. With advances in information science and data technology, health sciences librarianship now entails developing and managing institutional data repositories in health care organizations. Working as a data manager often requires the capacity to identify, share, manage, and preserve massive quantities of information effectively as well as knowledge of intellectual property, copyright, and permissions [ 18 , 53 , 80 , 81 ]. Librarians may also create data dictionaries and data management plans to support institutional staff and infrastructure.
In health sciences settings, data managers assist researchers and doctors by curating and providing access to this information in an effective and understandable way. Further, as data curation becomes increasingly pressing in health care fields, librarians play important embedded roles that necessitate the willingness to experiment and to work virtually in the face of shrinking budgets and limited facility space [ 82 ].
Constant and far-ranging shifts in the field of data management mean that professional development and continuing education are needed to prepare future librarians to fulfill this role and to maintain their abilities—along with a flexible mindset [ 35 ]. In conducting this review, the goal of this review was to identify and describe emerging and evolving roles of librarians in HIP contexts between and , as advances in technology and the increasing digitization of health-related information have brought significant changes to health care institutions of all types.
While the list of roles identified in this study is not exhaustive, it provides greater detail and expanded contexts that can inform ongoing and future curriculum development for health sciences librarianship. Mapping the identified roles to the MLA professional competencies Figure 1 demonstrates the overlapping responsibilities and multifaceted skill sets required of health sciences librarians. A lack of consensus and sometimes even confusion emerged in the results regarding the specific language and terminology used in either HIP job titles or HIP job descriptions related to these roles.
Indeed, King and Lapidus noted that informatics as a field itself encompasses the librarian-specific skills of research and information retrieval and evaluation [ 6 ]. Instruction in informatics can, thus, be said to overlap with general library instruction. Acknowledging the complexities of HIP terminology, this study provides important clarification about the nature of these roles and the different contexts in which they arise. Many of the identified emerging roles had overlapping components, and all entailed multiple core competencies.
Among the most prominent duties named in these roles were real-time search support, EBM, technological support, information literacy instruction, CME, point-of-need information, and collection development. These connections are indicated with numerals corresponding to the respective competencies listed in the center of the model Figure 1.
The roles are assigned ordinal rankings according to frequency of occurrence in the literature. They are arranged in a circular shape to represent their connected and overlapping attributes and to avoid conveying a sense of hierarchy or the prioritization of one skill set over another.
Identifying the versatile, innovative, and challenging professional settings and practice will enrich the design of online course delivery content and strategies.