Manual Race in North America: Origin and Evolution of a Worldview (4th Edition)

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As many scholars have underscored, and as this essay has suggested up to this point, Dobzhansky was a committed social activist devoted to using scientific knowledge to address social, political, and philosophical questions.

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His work on tropical D. This communication between Mayr and Dobzhansky raises two questions: First, how did Dobzhansky connect Drosophila genetics with human culture and society? And second, in making this connection at least as he did with Mayr , why did he mention D. Dobzhansky articulated his understanding of evolution, culture, and society over several decades in a number of publications addressed to both scientific and lay audiences.

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Essentially, he believed that the process of organismic evolution that is common to all species led sapient humans in particular to a new phase of cultural evolution, because whenever possible, natural selection promoted flexible traits, and learning was a most flexible method for coping with environmental changes.

Dobzhansky further supposed that the flexibility or plasticity afforded by the capacity for learning was particularly significant for human beings, since in addition to otherwise expected environmental changes, our species vigorously engages in transforming our own environments; indeed, Dobzhansky believed that selection for this ability was so vital for humans that it became a common trait across all populations and races Dobzhansky, Montagu, ; see also Dunn, Dobzhansky, ; Dobzhansky, , b , , ; for secondary literature, see Beatty, ; Jackson, Depew, It should be noted, however, that although this is not how he expressed his views to Mayr in , Dobzhansky continued to argue on many occasions that underlying genetic variation was important for human populations, even as our species entered this new phase of cultural evolution made possible by the generation of such developmentally plastic characteristics as educability.

After all, developmental plasticity was augmented in heterozygosis. In the case of human learning in particular, Dobzhansky believed that all kinds of human differences, including the ability to learn and perform different tasks and jobs well, must have had at least some genetic component or influence, and consequently benefited from genetic variation in human populations Beatty, ; Paul, This is not to be confused with crude biological determinism, however; Ayala , posits a modest biological ability for morality as opposed to a genetically determined content of moral codes , maintaining that the norms human beings use to judge good and evil are largely learned from culture, although he adds that they may be conditioned by some biological predispositions such as parental care.

As for the second question raised above, whether Dobzhansky specifically referred to D. But were we to stop here, we would assume a relationship between science and society that itself must be interrogated as a historical, political project. Enjoying a form of extra-political authority, Dobzhansky positioned himself as arbiter of what is the case — how evolution has taken place and what populations are like — and what must be done about it. Therefore, in contrast with his mentor who sought to expand the reach of population genetics science to claim authority over public concerns about race, Lewontin contended with the problem of race by demarcating narrower boundaries around population genetics science.

The evolution of Theodosius Dobzhansky : essays on his life and thought in Russia and America.

Race in North America: Origin and Evolution of a Worldview 4th Edition

Filipchenko and Dobzhansky: issues in evolutionary genetics in the s. In: Adams, Mark. Spreading the evolutionary synthesis: Theodosius Dobzhansky and genetics in Brazil.

Genetics and Molecular Biology , v. The difference of being human: morality. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences , v. The biological roots of morality. Biology and Philosophy , v. Genetics , v. Dobzhansky and the biology of democracy: the moral and political significance of genetic variation. Journal of the History of Biology , v. Dobzhansky and drift: facts, values, and chance in evolutionary biology.

Probabilistic revolution. Cambridge: MIT Press. Dobzhansky on evolutionary dynamics: some questions about his Russian background. A comparative study of chromosomal polymorphism in sibling species of the willistoni group of Drosophila. The American Naturalist , v. COE, Sophia D. Theodosius Dobzhansky: a family story.

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Missionaries of science : the Rockefeller Foundation and Latin America. On Dobzhansky and his evolution. Polymorphism in natural populations of a species of Drosophila. Journal of Heredity , v. Adaptive chromosomal polymorphism in Drosophila willistoni. Evolution , v. A further study of chromosomal polymorphism in Drosophila willistoni in its relation to the environment. DENT, Rosanna. The Xavante in perspective: anthropology and history in the study of indigenous populations. Perspectives on Science , v.

Genetic diversity and human equality: the facts and fallacies in the explosive genetics and education controversy. New York: Basic Books. Letter to Ernst Mayr.

Race in North America: Origin and Evolution of a Worldview - CRC Press Book

The biology of ultimate concern. New York: New American Library. On the non-existence of human races. Current Anthropology , v. Mankind evolving : the evolution of the human species.

The biological basis of human freedom. New York: Columbia University Press.

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A review of some fundamental concepts and problems of population genetics. Evolution in the tropics.

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American Scientist , v. Genetics of natural populations, IX: temporal changes in the composition of populations of Drosophila pseudoobscura. Genetics and the origin of species. Differentiation of nutritional preferences in Brazilian species of Drosophila. Ecology , v. Natural selection and the mental capacities of mankind. Science , v. Genetics of natural populations, I: chromosome variation in populations of Drosophila pseudoobscura inhabiting isolated mountain ranges.

Heredity, race, and society : a scientific explanation of human differences. New York: Mentor Books. Theodosius Dobzhansky and the genetic race concept. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science. Part C , v. Dobzhansky, Waddington, and Schmalhausen: embryology and the modern synthesis.

Race in North America: Origin and Evolution of a Worldview 4th Edition

The Rockefeller Foundation and the emergence of genetics in Brazil, In: Cueto, Marcos. Missionaries of science : the Rockefeller Foundation in Latin America. The structure of evolutionary theory. In: Dobzhansky, Theodosius. The spandrels of San Marco and the Panglossian paradigm: a critique of the adaptationist programme. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. B: Biological Sciences , v. Darwinism, democracy, and race : American anthropology and evolutionary biology in the twentieth century.

New York: Taylor and Francis. States of knowledge : the co-production of science and the social order. New York: Routledge. Fly room west: Dobzhansky, D. Dobzhansky in Kiev and Leningrad. Dobzhansky and Russian entomology: the origin of his ideas on species and speciation. The evolutionary worldview of Theodosius Dobzhansky.

Introduction: the scientific work of Theodosius Dobzhansky. In: Lewontin, Richard C. The genetic basis of evolutionary change. The apportionment of human diversity. Evolutionary biology.